Lehrstuhl f�r Internationale Politik und Au�enpolitik
der Universität zu Köln
Prof. Dr. Thomas Jäger

Forschungsinstitut für Politische Wissenschaft und Europäische Fragen 

Linksammlung State Failure and Regional Security

Project Links

The links are grouped in the following categories:

General Resources - English
General Resources - German
Course Outlines
Papers and Articles - English
Papers and Articles - German

 

General Resources

English Sites

Conferences

OECD: Senior Level Forum on Development Effectiveness in Fragile States
A two-day event in early 2005, the Forum brought together development agencies and multilateral organizations. The website features an impressive collection of up-to-date papers on failing states, state-building and aid, including several case studies.

Purdue University Conferences on Failed States
From 1998 to 2001, Purdue University's Failed States Research Group held a series of four annual conference on Failed States. The website has recently migrated to the UCSB servers. At the moment, the pages are hard to navigate, so here are the direct links: 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001 plus the previously undiscovered fifth conference of 2002. The papers available at these sites are an invaluable resource! On his personal page, Michael Stohl, the organizer of these conferences, notes that the research group that formed the core of the conferences still convenes annually and goes on to list some recent publications.

University of Toronto Workshop: "States within states"
This is the site of the workshop "States-within-states": Incipient Political Entities in the Post-Cold War Era, held at the Munk Centre for International Relations at the University of Toronto in October 2001. It features an executive summary and the papers presented, case studies all of them, by William Reno, Hussein M. Adam and other noted academics. The papers have been published in an edited volume by Paul Kingston and Ian Spears (Palgrave Macmillan, 2004).

University of Sussex Conference: The Global Constitution of 'Failed States'
This is the site of the conference 'The Global Constitution of 'Failed States': The consequences of a new imperialism?' which has been held in April 2001 at the University of Sussex Center for Global Political Economy. There are more than 20 papers and abstracts featured on the website, most of them from a critical perspective. Also see the review by Ipek Demir.

ODI: Failed and Fragile States: How can the MDGs be achieved in difficult environments?
The Overseas Development Institute held a meeting on 2 March 2005 to discuss the effectivity of development policy in the context of fragile states. Karin Christiansen, Ameen Jar and David Mepham provided insightful commentary on current development initiative aimed at failing states.

ISS-EU: Failing States and the EU's Security Agenda
This one-day seminar was held at the EU Institute for Security Studies in November 2004. The link goes to a summary with a briefing paper attached.

Stanford IIS: Conference on Governance and Sovereignty in Failed and Failing States
The Center on Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law of Stanford University's Institute for International Studies held a two-day conference featuring leading academic experts from the field, e.g., Robert Rotberg, William Reno and Paul Collier. A short summary of the proceedings is available.

World Bank: How to Capitalize on Entrepreneurship in Failed States?
In late 2004, the World Bank held an open online discussion on entrepreneurship in failed states. The most common example reffered to was Somalia and the aim was to learn lessons from the case in order to inform the work of donor agencies.

Blankensee Colloquium: The Future of Intervention
In July 2004, a consortium of Berlin universities organized a three-day conference entitled 'The Future of Intervention: Intervention, Legitimacy and the Reconstruction of Statehood'. Several high-level participants from different countries were invited. Unfortunately, the conference papers are not available for download.

Harvard Conference: Undermining Terrorism
Harvard's JFK School of Government hosted the conference 'Undermining Terrorism' on May 3-4, 2002. This panel, featuring Robert Rotberg and Michael Ignatieff, was one of the discussion session available. Apart from this, the site features an impressive number of papers on all kinds of terrorism-related aspects.

Research Projects & Policy Initiatives - Ongoing

Task Force on Political Instability (1994-2003: State Failure Task Force)
An ongoing project since 1994, the PITF has compiled a great amount of data on a number of happenings generally correlated with state failure (e.g., genocide, political violence, civil war). The page includes a complete listing of all 'state failure' events since 1955 (as defined by the PITF). Datasets, codebooks and progress reports are available on the site. The Phase IV report has just been published and can be ordered through the site. Three papers from Phase V presented at the 2005 APSA convention are already available. For more on the project see the 1998 paper by Ted Gurr et al. held at the first Purdue conference.

Fund for Peace & Foreign Policy magazine: Failed States Index
In 2005, the Fund for Peace and the journal Foreign Policy started an annual index ranking states by their degree of failure. The methodology was developed by the FfP and uses events data analysis to generate data for twelve additive indicators. Data and further material for the 2005 and 2006 indizes is available on the site.

World Peace Foundation: Collapsed States Project
This joint project by the WPF and the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard University, led by Robert Rotberg, produced several of the most influential publications in the field. Further research is being conducted, though no details are known.

World Bank: Low Income Countries Under Stress (LICUS)
An overview of the LICUS intiative, a World Bank trust fund specifically targeting fragile states. Several research papers and presentations on development aid effectiveness in fragile states are available on the site. Also see the World Bank's research project on the Economics of Civil Wars, Crime and Violence (which has been concluded; however, a follow-up project on post-conflict transitions has been set up in 2005) and the OECD Senior Level Forum, above.

U.S. State Department: Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization
In August 2004, this office was created with the intent to strengthen institutional capabilities within the U.S. government to deal with failing and post-conflict states. With the support of the CIA's National Intelligence Council, the Office maintains a list of 25 'countries to watch' that is updated every six months.

London School of Economics: Crisis States Programme
This research programme of the LSE's Development Studies Institute covers a wide range of perspectives on institutional failure in 'crisis states'. It has three regional foci: Colombia, Southern Africa and South Asia, organizes an annual workshop and features an impressive array of publications. The Programme has just entered its second phase (2006-2010), taking a comparative approach to the interrelationship between war, state collapse and reconstruction.

CDR/IDP: State Failure and Local Governance in Afghanistan and Somalia/Somaliland
A joint research project by the Center for Development Research (Bonn) and the Institute for Development and Peace (Duisburg) that compares post-collapse social order in several provinces of Afghanistan and Somaliland. Integrates questions of good governance and peace-building into its analysis.

FU Berlin & Stanford: Global Governance, States at Risk and the Future of the International System
This joint project conducted by Thomas Risse (Berlin) and Stephen Krasner (Stanford) aims to identify problems of governance in failing states and to develop possibilities for intervention.

Bochum: Post-Conflict Nationbuilding
The University of Bochum's Institute for International Law of Peace and Armed Conflict and the University of Hannover's Faculty of Law conduct a research project on the international law aspects of post-conflict statebuilding. The site offers a very good bibliography on the relevant literature.

Advanced Data- and Knowledge-Driven Methods for State Failure Risk Assessment
A joint project by a group of European researchers funded by a NATO program that aims to develop new methodological tools for the quantitative analysis of conflict data. An early project in this framework was the re-analysis of the PITF dataset using machine learning techniques.

CUNY: Program on States and Security
A program established in 2004 by Susan Woodward and a group of PhD candidates at CUNY, PSS provides a framework for three research projects: first, a critical revision of the concept of state failure, second, the construction of an epistemic network on state-building, and third, a comparative analysis of intervention in the Balkans.

DIIS: Conflict, Development and the State
The Department of Development Research of the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) has two interesting research fields: 'Conflict, Development and the State' and 'State Capacity, Local Politics and Service Provision'. There are many publications available in English.

ETH Zürich: Failed States in Sub-Saharan Africa
This project, led by Gabi Hesselbein, conducts an investigation into the economic roots of African nation-state failure. Gabi Hesselbein organized a panel on the topic at the 2005 EADI Conference in Bonn.

Ghent: Failed states or failed paradigms
This project is conducted by Koen Vlassenroot and Timothy Raeymakers at the University of Ghent's Conflict Research Group. It investigates the impact of state decay on people's lives and local modes of governance.

Coimbra: State Failure Strategies and Peacebuilding Processes
The University of Coimbra's Center for Social Studies is conducting a research project on "State Failure Strategies and Peacebuilding Processes: Lessons learned from former Portuguese colonies", directed by Jose Manuel Pureza. Little information available on the site.

Stanhope Centre: Crisis, Stability, State Failure and the Role of the Media
This project, a collaboration with the LSE Crisis States Programme 'has been created to study how media structures, media law and policies, and media content, integral to the development of civil society, are significant factors in the analysis of state stability, democratisation or `failure.´' No further information is available.

Global Policy Forum: Nations and States page
Global Policy Forum provides a huge collection of articles from all kinds of sources on different aspects of statehood, nations and sovereignty in an international context, e.g., Microstates, Tax Havens, Dollarization or Civil Wars. GPF also features special pages on failing and emerging states. All of these pages are constantly being updated.

Clingendael Institute: New publications
The Netherlands Institute of International Relations 'Clingendael' conducts several research projects about conflict in developing countries. Their list of publications features case studies about Colombia, Sri Lanka, Sierra Leone and other countries.

Research Projects & Policy Initiatives - Concluded

PM's Strategy Unit: Countries at Risk of Instability Project
The British Prime Minister's Strategy Unit has issued a report on unstable states, calling for preventive measures and an increase in international commitment to post-crisis states in the international system.

BICC: The role of external actors in civil war economies in Sub-Saharan Africa
A two-year research project that was concluded in early 2005. It sought to identify external actors in civil war economies, thus helping to focus international efforts to contain conflicts and apply sanctions.

CGD: Commission on Weak States and National Security
The Center for Global Development convened a panel of officials and academic to produce a report outlining policy recommendations for the United States government for dealing with weak statehood. The 25-member group issued its final report in July 2004.

FU Berlin: Accounting for State-Building, Stability and Violent Conflict
The Free University's Department of Eastern European Studies hosted this research project on 'The Institutional Framework of Caucasian and Central Asian Transitional Societies' from 2003 to 2006. Case studies of several Central Asian countries cluster around the issue of state-building after the Soviet collapse. Several working papers (some of them in English) are available on the site.

International Peace Academy: Economic Agendas in Civil Wars Project
The IPA's EACW program ran from 1999 to 2004. Among its publications is the hotly debated volume 'Greed and Grievance' (eds. Mats Berdal; David Malone). Follow-up volumes have been published. The 'Publications' link takes you to several papers, conference reports and some additional information about the books. 2002-2003, the IPA also conducted a research project on Making States Work.

Watson Institute: Effective and Defective States
A research project on the role of the state in economic and social development. During 2002 and 2003, the project sponsored a seminar series. Very little information available; the project seems to be defunct.

IPPR: Progressive Responses to 'State Failure'
A project by the British left-of-center think tank IPPR. In October 2003, a workshop was held in cooperation with the Friedrich Ebert Foundation (FES). A conference report is available on the website. Some additional information can be found at the FES London webpage. IPPR has continued to address themes of state capacity in its Africa and Governance project. Future projects will deal with sovereignty in Africa as well as the proposed UN Peacebuilding Commission.

UNU, IPA & Carr Center: Making States Work
This joint project of the United Nations University, the International Peace Academy and the Carr Center for Human Rights Policy at Harvard University held a series of meetings throughout 2002 and 2003 to produce an edited volume: Thakur, Ramesh; Chesterman, Simon; Ignatieff, Michael (eds.): Making States Work: State Failure and the Crisis of Governance. UNU Press, 2005.

Center for Defense Information: Failed States Resource Center
This page collects all the work by the CDI on the topic of failed states. The Center is mostly concerned with US foreign policy and has some articles on US relations with collapsed states, accordingly. Features links to other CDI projects of note, e.g. arms transfer or land mines. Not updated since May 2002.

University of Toronto: Environmental Scarcities, State Capacity, and Civil Violence
This project, which ran from 1994 to 1997 sought to establish linkages between environmental stress, the decreasing policy capacity of weak states and violent conflict. Three case studies were conducted on India, China and Indonesia, which are, for the most part, available at the site.

General Resources
German Sites

SFB 700: Governance in Räumen begrenzter Staatlichkeit
Dieser Sonderforschungsbereich unter der Leitung von Thomas Risse und Ursula Lehmkuhl versucht, die Literatur über Governance und Steuerung mit dem Konzept begrenzter Staatlichkeit zusammenzubringen. In rund 15 Teilprojekten werden die Bereiche Herrschaft, Sicherheit, Wohlfahrt und Umwelt sowie in einer Querschnittsgruppe die theoretischen Fragen bearbeitet. Der SFB wird getragen durch die FU Berlin, die Universität Potsdam, das WZB, die SWP, die Hertie School of Governance sowie das EUI.

SWP Berlin: States at Risk - Fragile Staaten als Sicherheits- und Entwicklungsproblem
Die Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik führt unter der Leitung von Ulrich Schneckener ein Forschungsprojekt zu den Bedingungen institutioneller Stabilität von Staaten durch. Dabei konzentriert sich das Team auf "Grenzfälle" fragiler Staatlichkeit wie z.B. Jordanien, Kenia oder Venezuela, die bislang kaum unter dem Gesichtspunkt der Staatlichkeit betrachtet wurden. Der Abschlussbericht liegt inzwischen vor. Siehe auch den Bericht über eine gemeinsame Tagung mit dem Carnegie Endowmwent for International Peace vom Januar 2004.

SEF: Entwicklung und failing states
Seit 2004 betreibt die Stiftung Entwicklung und Frieden eine Projektreihe, die bisherige Arbeitsschwerpunkte zu den Themen Entwicklungspolitik und Nation-building zusammenführen soll. Im Rahmen dieser Reihe richtet die SEF Workshops und Symposia aus und hat ein Policy Paper herausgegeben (siehe die Links 'Veranstaltungen' und 'Publikationen').

Humboldt-Universität Berlin: Mikropolitik bewaffneter Gruppen
Eine von Dr. Klaus Schlichte betreute Nachwuchsgruppe, die sich mit 'neuen Kriegen' beschäftigt. Das Projekt wird von der Volkswagen-Stiftung gefördert und läuft ab Ende 2001 für fünf Jahre. Sehr umfassende Arbeitsbibliographie sowie eine Datenbank mit Gruppen in kriegerischen Konflikten der 80er und 90er Jahre. Auf der Seite befinden sich außerdem die Protokolle der DVPW-Ad hoc-Gruppe "Ordnungen der Gewalt" (siehe den Link rechts oben).

German Institute of Global and Area Studies - Forschungsschwerpunkt 2: Gewaltdynamiken und Sicherheitskooperation
Im Zuge seiner Strukturreform hat das GIGA (früher DÜI) auch seine Forschungsschwerpunkte neu definiert; am interessantesten ist der Forschungsschwerpunkt 2 zu Gewaltdynamiken. Die Seite bietet einen Überblick über die verschiedenen Forschungsprojekte dieses Schwerpunkts; besonders interessant ist das Projekt Illegitime Gewaltmonopole und legitime "Gewaltoligopole"- Aspekte struktureller Instabilität.

Universität Leipzig: Herrschaft jenseits des Staates
Am Leipziger Institut für Afrikanistik läuft 2004-2007 ein Forschungsprojekt von Ulf Engel und Ruben Eberlein mit dem Titel "Herrschaft jenseits des Staates: Staatsverfall, Extraversion und externe Intervention in Westafrika", das von der DFG gefördert wird. Ein aktuelles Arbeitspapier kann bei Herrn Eberlein angefordert werden. Der Lehrstuhl ist auch mit einem Teilprojekt am Graduiertenkolleg 'Bruchzonen der Globalisierung' der Universität Leipzig beteiligt.

Universität Wien: Forschungsgruppe Staatlichkeit in der internationalen Politik
Die Forschungsgruppe befasst sich mit Staatlichkeit in einem sich wandelnden internationalen System. Dabei spielen Prozesse der Staatsschwäche und Staatsbildung eine zentrale Rolle. Leider nur wenige Informationen vorhanden.

Course Outlines

Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton, Course WWS 572d
This is the syllabus of the course "State Building and Failure in the Developing World", taught by Ana Maria Bejarano in the Spring term of 2003. It includes a course outline and a bibliography.

University of Alabama Political Science Course 321
PS 321: Failed States, taught by Harvey F. Kline in Spring 2003 and again in Spring 2004. Topics include theory, case studies and US policy. Most background papers are linked.

Hist.net: AG Genozidforschung
Die AG Genozidforschung hielt im Wintersemester 2001/02 diese Seminarreihe zum Thema "Staatszerfall und Völkermord in Afrika" an der ETH Zürich ab. Neben einigen Leseempfehlungen und Links bietet die Seite ausserdem eine umfangreiche Literaturliste zu den Themen Staatszerfall und Konflikt in Afrika.

Papers and Articles
English

African Studies Centre et al. 2003
African Studies Centre et al. (2003): Failed and Collapsed States in the International System. Report by the African Studies Centre, Leiden, The Transnational Institute, Amsterdam, The Center of Social Studies, Coimbra University and The Peace Research Center - CIP-FUHEM, Madrid, December 2003.

Akude 2006
Akude, John E. (2006): Historical Imperatives for the Emergence of Development and Democracy: A perspective for the analysis of poor governance quality and state collapse in Africa. Cologne: Arbeitspapiere zur Internationalen Politik und Außenpolitik, 01/2006.

Baker; Ausink 1996
Baker, Pauline H.; Ausink, John (1996): State Collapse and Ethnic Violence: towards a predictive model. In: Parameters, Spring 1996, p. 19-31.

Bates 2005
Bates, Robert H. (2005): Political Insecurity and State Failure in Contemporary Africa. CID Working Paper No. 115, January 2005.

Beck et al. 2001
Beck, Nathaniel; Epstein, David; Jackman, Simon; O'Halloran, Sharyn (2001): Alternative Models of Dynamics in Binary Time-Series-Cross-Section Models: The example of state failure. Paper presented at the 2001 Annual Meeting of the Society for Political Methodology, Emory University, 18-22 July 2001.

Bilgin; Morten 2002
Bilgin, Pinar; Morten, Adam David (2002): Historicising Representations of 'Failed States': Beyond the Cold-War annexation of the Social Sciences. In: Third World Quarterly, Vol. 23, No. 1, p. 55-80.

Brett 2006
Brett, E.A. (2006): State Failure and Success in Uganda and Zimbabwe: The logic of political decay and reconstruction in Africa. London: Crisis States Working Paper No. 78, February 2006.

Broekman 2000
Broekman, David (2000): A State Failure - Violence - Resource Capture Triangle: Comparing the Angolan and Colombian experiences. In: UNISA Latin American Report, Vol. 16, No. 2, p. 4-34.

Brundtland 2002
Brundtland, Gro Harlem (2002): Failed States and Global Security: How health can contribute to a safer world. Address to the Brookings Leadership Forum. Brookings Institution, Washington D.C., September 26th, 2002.

Carment 2001
Carment, David (2001): Anticipating State Failure. Paper presented at the World Peace Foundation Conference, January 19-21, 2001.

Carment 2001
Carment, David (2001): Assessing Country Risk: Creating an Index of Severity. Background Discussion Paper prepared for the CIFP Risk Assessment Template, May 2001.

Carment 2005
Carment, David (2005): Effective Defence Policy for Responding to Failed and Failing States. Calgary: Canadian Defence & Foreign Affairs Institute Research Paper, June 2005.

Collier 2000
Collier, Paul (2000): Economic Causes of Civil Conflict and their Implications for Policy. World Bank Research Paper, Juni 2000.

Collier 2003
Collier, Paul et al. (2003): Breaking the Conflict Trap: Civil war and development policy. World Bank Policy Research Report.

Collier; Hoeffler 2001
Collier, Paul; Hoeffler, Anke (2001): Greed and Grievance in Civil War. World Bank Research Paper, Oktober 2001.

Commission on Post-Conflict Reconstruction 2003
Commission on Post-Conflict Reconstruction (2003): Play to Win: Final report of the Commission of Post-Conflict Reconstruction. Washington: CSIS & Arlington: AUSA, January 2003.

Corr; Pearlman 2002
Corr, Anders; Pearlman, Wendy (2002): State Failure: Full Bayesian Neural Network Predictions. Unpublished Manusript, 15 May 2002. The dataset is available here.

Cuellar 2003
Cuellar, Mariano-Florentino (2003): The Mismatch Between State Power and State Capacity in Transnational Law Enforcement. Stanford Law School, Public Law Working Paper No. 70, November 2003.

Debiel 2005
Debiel, Tobias (2005): What can be done with Fragile States? Options for development policy and beyond. Paper presented at the Experts Forum at the Federal Foreign Office, Berlin, 20-21 October 2005.

Debiel 2005
Debiel, Tobias (2005): Dealing with Fragile States: Entry points and approaches for development cooperation. Bonn: ZEF Discussion Papers on Development Policy, December 2005.

Debiel; Klingebiel; Mehler; Schneckener 2005
Debiel, Tobias; Klingebiel, Stephan; Mehler, Andreas; Schneckener, Ulrich (2005): Between Ignorance and Intervention: Strategies and dilemmas of external actors in fragile states. Development and Peace Foundation Policy Paper No. 23, January 2005.

Del Rosso 1995
Del Rosso, Stephen J. (1995): The Insecure State. In: Daedalus, Vol. 124, No. 2, p. 175-208.

Dempsey 2002
Dempsey, Gary T. (2002): Old Folly in a New Disguise: Nation Building to combat terrorism. CATO Institute Policy Analysis No. 429, March 2002.

Docking 2002
Docking, Timothy (2002): Responding to War and State Collapse in West Africa. US Institute for Peace Special Report No. 81, January 2002.

Dorff 1996
Dorff, Robert H. (1996): Democratization and Failed States: The challenge of ungovernability. In: Parameters, Summer 1996, p. 17-31.

Dorff 2002
Dorff, Robert H. (2002): State Failure and Responding to it. Paper presentend at the Annual Convention of the International Studies Association, New Orleans, LA, 23-27 March 2002.

Dunlap 2004
Dunlap, Ben N. (2004): State Failure and the Use of Force in the Age of Global Terror. In: Boston College International and Comparative Law Review, Vol. 27, No. 2, p. 453-475.

Economist 2005
Economist (2005): From Chaos, Order: Rebuilding failed states. In: The Economist, 3 March 2005.

Ellis 2003
Ellis, Stephen (2003): The Old Roots of Africa's New Wars. In: International Politics and Society, No. 2/2003, p. 29-43.

Enjeux Internationeaux 2006
Enjeux Internationeaux, Spring 2006 Special Issue: Failed States. (French version also available.)

Fearon; Laitin 2004
Fearon, James D.; Laitin, David D. (2004): Neotrusteeship and the Problem of Weak States. In: International Security, Vol. 28, No. 4, p. 5-43.

Goldsmith 2000
Goldsmith, Arthur A. (2000): Foreign Aid and Statehood in Africa. EAGER Project Discussion Paper No. 47, June 2000.

Gordon 1999
Gordon, Ruth (1999): Growing Constitutions. In: University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law, Vol. 1, No. 3, p. 528-582.

Hentz 2004
Hentz, James J. (2004): State Collapse and Regional Contagion in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons for Zimbabwe. In: Scientia Militaria, Vol. 32, No. 1, p. 143-156.

Hesselbein; Golooba-Mutebi; Putzel 2006
Hesselbein, Gabi; Golooba-Mutebi, Frederick; Putzel, James (2006): Economic and Political Foundations of State-Making in Africa: Understanding state reconstruction. London: Crisis States Working Paper No. 3, Series No. 2.

International Crime Threat Assessment 2000
International Crime Threat Assessment 2000, Chapter 4. Prepared by the Government of the United States. You can also find the full report here.

IRIS 2003
IRIS (2003): Proposed Typology in Order to Classify Countries Based on Performance and State Capacity. The IRIS Center at the University of Maryland, College Park. Unpublished Manuscript.

Jackson 1998
Jackson, Robert H. (1998): Surrogate Sovereignty? Great Power Responsibility and 'Failed States'. University of British Columbia Institute of International Relations Working Paper No. 25, November 1998.

Jurekovic 2002
Jurekovic, Predrag (ed.) (2002): Building Stability in Weak States - The Western Balkans. Documentation of the 4th Workshop of the Study Group "Crisis Management in South East Europe". Vienna: Landesverteidigungsakademie und Büro für Sicherheitspolitik, in co-operation with the PfP Consortium of Defence Academies and Security Studies Institutes, 20 April 2002.

Kahler 2002
Kahler, Miles (2002): Networks and Failed States: September 11 and the Long Twentieth Century. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of APSA, Boston, August 29-September 1, 2002.

Kale 2001
Kale, Ndiva Kofele (2001): The Sovereign African State is Dead... Long Live the State! Reflections on the 'collapsed state' debate. Paper presented at the conference 'Africa at Crossroads: Complex Political Emergencies in the 21st Century', Douala, Cameroon, 21-23 May 2001.

Kaplan 1994
Kaplan, Robert (1994): The Coming Anarchy. In: The Atlantic Monthly, February 1994, Vol. 273, No. 2, p. 44-76.

Keen 2003
Keen, David (2003): Greedy Elites, Dwindling Resources, Alienated Youths: The anatomy of protracted violence in Sierra Leone. In: International Politics and Society, No. 2/2003, p. 67-94.

Khan 2002
Khan, Mushtaq H. (2002): State Failure in Developing Countries and Strategies of Institutional Reform. Paper presented at the ABCDE Conference, Oslo, June 24-26th, 2002. Also see the comment by Pranab Bardhan.

Khor 2002
Khor, Martin (2002): "Failed states" Theory can Cause Global Anarchy. Third World Network, March 4th, 2002

King; Zeng 2001
King, Gary; Zeng, Langche (2001): Improving Forecasts of State Failure. In: World Politics, July 2001, Vol. 53, No. 4. Gary King also provides data from the State Failure Task Force research program on his data page.

Korteweg; Ehrhardt 2006
Korteweg, Rem; Ehrhardt, David (2006): Terrorist Black Holes: A study into terrorist sanctuaries and governmental weakness. Den Haag: Clingendael Centre for Strategic Studies

Krasner 2004
Krasner, Stephen D. (2004): Governance Failures and Alternatives to Sovereignty. Stanford: Center on Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law Working Paper No. 1, 2 November 2004.

Leader; Colenso 2005
Leader, Nicholas; Colenso, Peter (2005): Aid Instruments in Fragile States. London: DfID, Poverty Reduction in Difficult Environments Team Working Paper No. 5, March 2005.

Lemarchand 1997
Lemarchand, René (1997): Patterns of State Collapse and Reconstruction in Central Africa: Reflections on the crisis in the Great Lakes. In: African Studies Quarterly, Vol. 1, No. 3.

Leonard 2003
Leonard, Mark (ed.)(2002): Re-Ordering the World. London: Foreign Policy Centre.

Mair 2003
Mair, Stefan (2003): The New World of Privatized Violence. In: International Politics and Society, No. 2/2003, p. 11-28.

Mallaby 2002
Mallaby, Sebastian (2002): The Reluctant Imperialist: Terrorism, Failed States, and the Case for American Empire. In: Foreign Affairs, Vol. 81, No. 2, p. 2-7.

Marshall 2001
Marshall, Monty (2001): Regime Authority, Opportunity, and Outbreaks of State Failure Events. Paper presented at the Uppsala Conference on Conflict Data, June 8-9, 2001.

Marton 2006
Marton, Péter (ed.)(2006): Államok és államkudarcok a globalizálódó világban [States and State Failure in a Globalising World]. Budapest: Teleki László Intézet - Külpoltitikai Tanulmányok Központja. (Contains one english-language article and english abstracts of all contributions.)

Massing 2002
Massing, Michael (2002): In Failed States, Can Democracy Come Too Soon? In: New York Times, February 23rd, 2002, Section B, Page 9. Republished by Somaliawatch, February 23rd, 2002.

Maull 2002
Maull, Hanns W. (2002): Containing Entropy, Rebuilding the State: Challenges to international order in the age of globalisation. In: International Politics and Society Online 2/2002.

Morgan 2002
Morgan, Patrick (2002): Failing States. In: Quadrant, Vol. 46, No. 9.

Norton; Miskel 1997
Norton, Richard J.; Miskel, James F. (1997): Spotting Trouble: Identifying faltering and failing states. In: Naval War College Review, Vol. 50, No. 2, p. 79-91.

Olsen 2001
Olsen, Gorm Rye (2001): Europe and Africa's Failed States: From development to containment. Paper presented at the conference "The global constitution of 'failed states': the consequences of a new imperialism?", University of Sussex, 18-20 April 2001.

Ottaway; Mair 2004
Ottaway, Marina; Mair, Stefan (2004): States at Risk and Failed States. Carnegie Endowment Policy Outlook, September 2004.

Posner 2004
Posner, Daniel N. (2004): Civil Society and the Reconstruction of Failed States. In: Rotberg, Robert I.(Hg.): When States Fail. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Prah 2004
Prah, Kwesi K. (2004): African Wars and Ethnic Conflicts - Rebuilding failed states. UNDP Human Development Report Office Occasional Paper 10/2004.

Raeymakers 2005
Raeymakers, Timothy (2005): Collapse or Order? Questioning state collapse in Africa. University of Ghent Conflict Research Group Working Paper No. 1, May 2005.

Record 2000
Record, Jeffrey (2000): Failed States and Casualty Phobia: Implications for force structure and technology choices. Center for Strategy and Technology, Air War College Alabama Occasional Paper No. 18.

Reinold 2004
Reinold, Theresa (2004): State Failure - Disease Without a Remedy? Weltpolitik.net, 24 August 2004.

Reno 2001
Reno, William (2001): Warfare in Collapsed States, and Special Problems of Conflict Resolution. In: IGD Global Dialogue Vol. 6.2, July 2001.

Reno 2002
Reno, William (2002): Armed Rebellion in Collapsed States. In: South East Asian Studies, Vol. 39, No. 4, p. 584-603.

Reno 2003
Reno, William (2003): Political Networks in a Failing State: The roots and future of violent conflict in Sierra Leone. In: International Politics and Society, No. 2/2003, p. 44-66.

Rice 2002
Rice, Susan E. (2002): U.S. Foreign Assistance and Failed States. Working Paper for the Brookings Website, 25 November 2002.

Rice 2003
Rice, Susan E. (2003): The New National Security Strategy: Focus on Failed States. The Brookings Institution Policy Brief #116, February 2003.

Rotberg 2002
Rotberg, Robert (2002): The New Nature of Nation-State Failure. In: The Washington Quarterly, Summer 2002, Vol. 25, No. 3, p. 85-96. Also see the other articles of this issue (25:3).

Rotberg 2003
Rotberg, Robert I. (2003): Failed States, Collapsed States, Weak States: Causes and Indicators. In: ibid. (ed.): State Failure and State Weakness in a Time of Terror. Washington D.C.: Brookings, p. 1-25.

Rotberg 2003
Rotberg, Robert (2003): Nation-State Failure: A recurring phenomenon. Discussion paper for the CIA's NIC 2020 project, 6 November 2003.

Rotberg 2004
Rotberg, Robert I. (2004): The Failure and Collapse of Nation-States: Breakdown, prevention, and repair. In: ibid. (ed.): When States Fail: Causes and consequences. Princeton, Oxford: Princeton University Press, p. 1-49.

Schlichte 1998
Schlichte, Klaus (1998): Why States Decay - Global Factors and Local Dynamics. Paper presented at the Journees d'etudes on "Privatisations des Etats", Centre d'Etudes d'Afrique Noire, University of Bordeaux, October 22-23, 1998.

Soederberg; Ohlson 2003
Soederberg, Mimmi; Ohlson, Thomas (2003): Democratisation and Armed Conflicts in Weak States. Stockholm: SIDA, March 2003.

Stoddard 2002
Stoddard, Abby (2002): Ehnonationalism and the Failed State: Sources of civil state fragmentation in the international political economy. In: e-merge, Vol. 3, August 2002.

Stohl; Stohl 2004
Stohl, Michael; Stohl, Rachel (2004): The Failed and Failing State and the Bush Administration. Center for Defense Information, 16 December 2004.

Straw 2001
Straw, Jack (2001): Order Out of Chaos: The future of Afghanistan. Speech held at the International Institute of Strategic Studies, London, October 22nd, 2001.

Straw 2002
Straw, Jack (2002): Failed and Failing States. Speech held at the European Research Institute, Birmingham, September 6th, 2002.

Takeyh; Gvosdev 2002
Takeyh, Ray; Gvosdev, Nikolas (2002): Do Terrorist Networks Need a Home? In: The Washington Quarterly, Summer 2002, Vol. 25, No. 3, p. 97-108.

Thuerer 1999
Thuerer, Daniel (1999): The "failed state" and international law. In: International Review of the Red Cross, No. 836, S. 731-761.

USAID 2005
USAID (2005): Fragile States Strategy. Washington D.C.: US Agency for Development, January 2005.

Wise 2004
Wise, William M. (2004): American Perspectives on the Threat Posed by Weak and Failing Asian States. Paper presented at the U.S.-China Conference on Areas of Instability and Emerging Threats, Beijing, 23-24 February 2004.

Woodward 1999
Woodward, Susan L. (1999): Failed States: Warlordism and 'tribal' warfare. In: Naval War College Review, Vol. 52, No. 2, p. 55-68.

World Bank Independent Evaluation Group 2006
World Bank Independent Evaluation Group (2006): Engaging with Fragile States: An IEG review of World Bank support to low-income countries under stress. Washington D.C.: The World Bank Group.

Papers and Articles
German

Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte 2005
Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, Nr. 28-29/2005. Schwerpunktthema: Zerfallende Staaten.

Bakonyi 2001
Bakonyi, Jutta (2001): Instabile Staatlichkeit: Zur Transformation politischer Herrschaft in Somalia. Arbeitspapier Nr. 3/2001 der Forschungsstelle Kriege, Rüstung und Entwicklung der Universität Hamburg.

Büttner 2004
Büttner, Annette (2004): Wenn Chaos regiert: Staatszerfall in Entwicklungsländern: Ursachen, Folgen und Regulierungsmöglichkeiten. Arbeitspapier der Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung No. 125, März 2004.

Chojnacki 2000
Chojnacki, Sven (2000): Anarchie und Ordnung: Stabilitätsrisiken und Wandel internationaler Ordnung durch innerstaatliche Gewalt und Staatenzerfall. Papier für die Konferenz: "Internationale Risikopolitik" am 24./25. November 2000, Berlin.

Deutscher Bundestag 2002
Antwort der Bundesregierung auf eine Grosse Anfrage der CDU/CSU-Fraktion (BT-Drucksache 14/8417 vom 26.2.2002) zum Thema "Umgang mit dem Zerfall staatlicher Autorität". BT-Drucksache 14/9623 vom 26.6.2002.

Ehrke 2002
Ehrke, Michael (2002): Zur politischen Ökonomie post-nationalstaatlicher Konflikte. In: Internationale Politik und Gesellschaft, No. 3/2002, S. 135-163.

Ehrke 2003
Ehrke, Michael (2003): Von der Raubökonomie zur Rentenökonomie: Mafia, Bürokratie und internationales Mandat in Bosnien. In: Internationale Politik und Gesellschaft, No. 2/2003, p. 123-154.

Entwicklung & ländlicher Raum 2005
Entwicklung & ländlicher Raum, No. 6/2005. Schwerpunktthema: Fragile Staaten.

Erdmann 2003
Erdmann, Gero (2003): Apokalyptische Trias: Staatsversagen, Staatsverfall und Staatszerfall - strukturelle Probleme der Demokratie in Afrika. In: Bendel, Petra; Croissant, Aurel; Rüb, Friedbert (Hg.): Demokratie und Staatlichkeit: Systemwechsel zwischen Staatlichkeit und Staatskollaps. Opladen: Leske + Budrich, S. 267-292.

Kühn; Lambach; Terlinden 2003
Kühn, Florian P.; Lambach, Daniel; Terlinden, Ulf (2003): Menschliche Sicherheit, Good Governance und Strukturelle Stabilität: Hilflose Konzepte in Zeiten des Staatsverfalls? Dokumentation eines Workshops, 20.-21. November 2003, Bonn. Bonn: Zentrum für Entwicklungsforschung.

Kuemmel 2000
Kuemmel, Gerhard (2000): Gefahr an der Peripherie. Sicherheitsrisiken durch Außenseiterstaaten. In: Informationen für die Truppe, 03/2000.

Loges; Menzel 2004
Loges, Bastian; Menzel, Ulrich (2004): Staatszerfall und humanitäre Intervention. In: E+Z, No. 4/2004.

Mair 2002
Mair, Stefan (2002): Die Globalisierung privater Gewalt: Kriegsherren, Rebellen, Terroristen und organisierte Kriminalität. SWP-Studie S 10/2002, Berlin, April 2002.

Medico International 2002
Medico International (2002): Ungeheuer ist nur das Normale: Zur Ökonomie der "neuen" Kriege. Medico-Report No. 24. Frankfurt: Mabuse.

Politische Studien 2004
Politische Studien, Vol. 55, No. 393, Januar/Februar 2004. Schwerpunktthema: "Failing States" - Ursachen, Verlaufsformen, Sicherheitsprobleme.

Roehder 2004
Roehder, Katja (2004): Entwicklungspolitische Handlungsfelder im Kontext erodierender Staatlichkeit in Subsahara-Afrika. Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik Diskussionspapier No. 5/2004.

Schlichte 1995
Schlichte, Klaus (1995): Staatszerfall und Krieg in Liberia. In: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (Hg.): Frühwarnung und Vermittlung bei Konflikten: Chancen für Prävention? Bonn: FES, electronic edition.

Schneckener 2004
Schneckener, Ulrich (2004): Transnationale Terroristen als Profiteure fragiler Staatlichkeit. SWP-Studie S 18/2004, Mai 2004.

Schneckener 2004
Schneckener, Ulrich (Hg.)(2004): States at Risk: Fragile Staaten als Sicherheits- und Entwicklungsproblem. SWP-Studie S 43/2004, November 2004.

Spanger 2002
Spanger, Hans-Joachim (2002): Die Wiederkehr des Staates: Staatszerfall als wissenschaftliches und entwicklungspolitisches Problem. HSFK-Report 1/2002.

Stroux 2003
Stroux, Daniel (2003): Rohstoffe, Ressentiments und staatsfreie Räume: Die Strukturen des Krieges in Afrikas Mitte. In: Internationale Politik und Gesellschaft, No. 2/2003, p. 95-111.

Tetzlaff 2002
Tetzlaff, Rainer (2002): Die Staaten Afrikas zwischen demokratischer Konsolidierung und Staatszerfall. In: Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, Nr. 13-14/2002, S. 3-6.

Wirz 2001
Wirz, Albert (2001): Krieg, Staatszerfall und Staatsbildung: Das Beispiel des Kongo. In: Spillmann, Kurt R.; Wenger, Andreas (Hg.): Zeitgeschichtliche Hintergründe aktueller Konflikte VII. Zürcher Beiträge zur Sicherheitspolitik und Konfliktforschung, No. 60, S. 119-141.

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